Water Features
Gladwyne Pennsylvania

Outdoor Garden Fountain Engineers Through History

Fountain designers were multi-talented people from the 16th to the late 18th century, often serving as architects, sculptors, artisans, engineers and cultivated scholars all in one person. Exemplifying the Renaissance artist as a inspiring legend, Leonardo da Vinci toiled as an inventor and scientific expert. He systematically documented his examinations in his now celebrated notebooks about his investigations into the forces of nature and the attributes and mobility of water. Brilliant water displays packed with symbolic meaning and all-natural beauty transformed private villa settings when early Italian water fountain creators paired imagination with hydraulic and gardening abilities.Outdoor Garden Fountain Engineers History 14774576666905.jpg The brilliance in Tivoli were created by the humanist Pirro Ligorio, who was celebrated for his capabilities in archeology, architecture and garden design. Masterminding the phenomenal water marbles, water features and water pranks for the assorted mansions near Florence, some other fountain creators were well versed in humanist subjects and classical scientific texts.

Water Transport Strategies in Historic Rome

Previous to 273, when the very first elevated aqueduct, Aqua Anio Vetus, was made in Rome, residents who dwelled on hills had to go further down to collect their water from natural sources. Outside of these aqueducts and springs, wells and rainwater-collecting cisterns were the only techniques readily available at the time to supply water to areas of greater elevation.Water Transport Strategies Historic Rome 207025070414862650.jpg Starting in the sixteenth century, a newer system was introduced, using Acqua Vergine’s subterranean sections to generate water to Pincian Hill. The aqueduct’s channel was made accessible by pozzi, or manholes, that were situated along its length when it was 1st constructed. Whilst these manholes were developed to make it much easier to protect the aqueduct, it was also possible to use containers to extract water from the channel, which was practiced by Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi from the time he purchased the property in 1543 to his passing in 1552. Reportedly, the rainwater cistern on his property wasn’t sufficient to fulfill his needs. That is when he made the decision to create an access point to the aqueduct that ran directly below his residence.

Sculpture As a Staple of Classic Art in Historic Greece

The first freestanding sculpture was developed by the Archaic Greeks, a notable success since until then the only carvings in existence were reliefs cut into walls and pillars. Younger, appealing male or female (kore) Greeks were the subject matter of most of the sculptures, or kouros figures. Regarded as by Greeks to represent skin care, the kouroi were shaped into firm, forward facing poses with one foot outstretched, and the male statues were usually nude, muscular, and athletic. The kouroi started to be life-sized starting in 650 BC. The Archaic period was tumultuous for the Greeks as they evolved into more sophisticated forms of federal government and art, and gained more data about the peoples and societies outside of Greece.Sculpture Staple Classic Art Historic Greece 057862912369871468.jpg Still these disagreements did not prohibit the emergence of the Greek civilization. {Modern Garden Decor: Large Outdoor Water Fountains Roots 076390034910305.jpg

Modern Garden Decor: Large Outdoor Water Fountains and their Roots

A fountain, an incredible piece of engineering, not only supplies drinking water as it pours into a basin, it can also launch water high into the air for an extraordinary effect.

From the beginning, outdoor fountains were soley there to serve as functional elements. Water fountains were connected to a spring or aqueduct to provide potable water as well as bathing water for cities, townships and villages. Up until the 19th century, fountains had to be more elevated and closer to a water source, such as aqueducts and reservoirs, in order to take advantage of gravity which fed the fountains. Fountains were not only utilized as a water source for drinking water, but also to decorate homes and celebrate the designer who created it. The main components used by the Romans to create their fountains were bronze or stone masks, mostly illustrating animals or heroes. During the Middle Ages, Muslim and Moorish garden designers included fountains in their designs to mimic the gardens of paradise. To demonstrate his prominence over nature, French King Louis XIV included fountains in the Garden of Versailles. To mark the entryway of the restored Roman aqueducts, the Popes of the 17th and 18th centuries commissioned the construction of baroque style fountains in the spot where the aqueducts entered the city of Rome

The end of the 19th century saw the increase in usage of indoor plumbing to provide drinking water, so urban fountains were relegated to purely decorative elements. Gravity was replaced by mechanical pumps in order to enable fountains to bring in clean water and allow for beautiful water displays.

Embellishing city parks, honoring people or events and entertaining, are some of the uses of modern-day fountains.

Outdoor Fountains: The Minoan Civilization

A variety of types and designs of conduits have been discovered through archaeological excavations on the island of Crete, the cradle of Minoan civilization.Outdoor Fountains: Minoan Civilization 75800617194.jpg They were used for water supply as well as removal of storm water and wastewater. The main ingredients employed were rock or clay. When terracotta was used, it was usually for canals as well as conduits which came in rectangle-shaped or circular shapes. The cone-like and U-shaped clay piping that were discovered haven’t been found in any other culture. Clay pipelines were used to distribute water at Knossos Palace, running up to three meters below the flooring. These Minoan pipes were also made use of for collecting and storing water, not just distribution. These terracotta pipes were used to perform: Below ground Water Transportation: Initially this particular technique would seem to have been designed not for ease but rather to offer water to certain people or rites without it being noticed. Quality Water Transportation: Considering the data, a number of scholars advocate that these conduits were not linked to the popular water distribution system, offering the palace with water from a different source.