Water Features
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Main Characteristics Ancient Greek Sculpture 14774576666905.jpg

The Main Characteristics of Ancient Greek Sculpture

Archaic Greeks were known for creating the first freestanding statuary; up till then, most carvings were constructed out of walls and pillars as reliefs. For the most part the statues, or kouros figures, were of adolescent and desirable male or female (kore) Greeks. The kouroi, regarded by the Greeks to portray beauty, had one foot stretched out of a strict forward-facing pose and the male statues were regularly unclothed, with a compelling, sturdy build. Life-sized versions of the kouroi appeared beginning in 650 BC. The Archaic period was turbulent for the Greeks as they progressed into more refined forms of federal government and art, and obtained more information and facts about the peoples and civilizations outside of Greece. Throughout this time and other periods of historic tumultuousness, clashes often took place, most notably battles fought between city-states such as the Arcadian wars and the Spartan invasion of Samos.

The Earliest Water Features

The water from creeks and other sources was originally provided to the citizens of nearby towns and municipalities through water fountains, whose design was largely practical, not artistic. Gravity was the power supply of water fountains up until the end of the 19th century, using the forceful power of water traveling down hill from a spring or creek to push the water through valves or other outlets. Striking and spectacular, large water fountains have been crafted as memorials in most civilizations. The contemporary fountains of today bear little likeness to the very first water fountains. A stone basin, crafted from rock, was the first fountain, utilized for containing water for drinking and spiritual functions. Natural stone basins as fountains have been recovered from 2000 BC. The spraying of water emerging from small jets was forced by gravity, the lone power source creators had in those days. Drinking water was provided by public fountains, long before fountains became decorative public statues, as striking as they are functional. Fountains with ornamental Gods, mythological beasts, and creatures began to show up in Rome in about 6 B.C., crafted from natural stone and bronze. The remarkable aqueducts of Rome supplied water to the incredible public fountains, most of which you can go see today.

Early Water Delivery Solutions in Rome

With the development of the very first elevated aqueduct in Rome, the Aqua Anio Vetus in 273 BC, folks who lived on the city’s hillsides no longer had to be dependent only on naturally-occurring spring water for their demands. When aqueducts or springs weren’t available, people dwelling at raised elevations turned to water drawn from underground or rainwater, which was made available by wells and cisterns. Starting in the sixteenth century, a new system was introduced, using Acqua Vergine’s subterranean sections to supply water to Pincian Hill. The aqueduct’s channel was made accessible by pozzi, or manholes, that were placed along its length when it was first designed.Early Water Delivery Solutions Rome 2479072229404673.jpg The manholes made it less demanding to thoroughly clean the channel, but it was also achievable to use buckets to remove water from the aqueduct, as we observed with Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi when he bought the property from 1543 to 1552, the year he died. It seems that, the rainwater cistern on his property wasn’t sufficient to fulfill his needs. That is when he made the decision to create an access point to the aqueduct that ran below his residential property.

Where did Large Garden Fountains Come From?

A water fountain is an architectural piece that pours water into a basin or jets it high into the air in order to provide drinking water, as well as for decorative purposes.

Originally, fountains only served a practical purpose. Inhabitants of urban areas, townships and small towns used them as a source of drinking water and a place to wash up, which meant that fountains had to be linked to nearby aqueduct or spring. Used until the nineteenth century, in order for fountains to flow or shoot up into the air, their origin of water such as reservoirs or aqueducts, had to be higher than the water fountain in order to benefit from gravity. Serving as an element of adornment and celebration, fountains also supplied clean, fresh drinking water. Roman fountains often depicted imagery of animals or heroes made of metal or stone masks. Muslims and Moorish landscaping designers of the Middle Ages included fountains to re-create smaller models of the gardens of paradise. To show his prominence over nature, French King Louis XIV included fountains in the Garden of Versailles.Large Garden Fountains Come From? 207025070414862650.jpg The Popes of the 17th and 18th centuries were extolled with baroque style fountains constructed to mark the place of entry of Roman aqueducts.

The end of the 19th century saw the rise in usage of indoor plumbing to provide drinking water, so urban fountains were relegated to purely decorative elements. Impressive water effects and recycled water were made possible by replacing the power of gravity with mechanical pumps.

Modern fountains are used to adorn community spaces, honor individuals or events, and enrich recreational and entertainment events.

A Chronicle of Outdoor Fountains

Pope Nicholas V, himself a well educated man, governed the Roman Catholic Church from 1397 to 1455 during which time he commissioned many translations of ancient classic Greek documents into Latin. He undertook the beautification of Rome to turn it into the model seat of the Christian world.Chronicle Outdoor Fountains 14774576666905.jpg In 1453 the Pope instigated the repairing of the Aqua Vergine, an historic Roman aqueduct which had carried fresh drinking water into the city from eight miles away. A mostra, a monumental celebratory fountain built by ancient Romans to mark the point of arrival of an aqueduct, was a custom which was restored by Nicholas V. The present-day location of the Trevi Fountain was previously occupied by a wall fountain commissioned by the Pope and built by the architect Leon Battista Alberti. The aqueduct he had refurbished included modifications and extensions which eventually allowed it to supply water to the Trevi Fountain as well as the renowned baroque fountains in the Piazza del Popolo and the Piazza Navona.