The Origins of Contemporary Wall Fountains

Hundreds of classic Greek texts were translated into Latin under the auspices of the scholarly Pope Nicholas V, who ruled the Roman Catholic Church from 1397 to 1455. He undertook the beautification of Rome to turn it into the worthy seat of the Christian world. In 1453 the Pope commissioned the reconstruction of the Aqua Vergine, an historic Roman aqueduct which had carried fresh drinking water into the city from eight miles away. The ancient Roman custom of building an imposing commemorative fountain at the location where an aqueduct arrived, also known as a mostra, was revived by Nicholas V. The Trevi Fountain now occupies the area formerly filled with a wall fountain built by Leon Battista Albert, an architect employed by the Pope. Modifications and extensions, included in the repaired aqueduct, eventually provided the Trevi Fountain and the well-known baroque fountains in the Piazza del Popolo and Piazza Navona with the necessary water supply.

The Results of the Norman Conquest on Anglo Saxon Landscaping

Results Norman Conquest Anglo Saxon Landscaping 057862912369871468.jpg The Anglo-Saxon way of life was drastically changed by the introduction of the Normans in the later eleventh century. Engineering and horticulture were skills that the Normans excelled in, trumping that of the Anglo-Saxons at the time of the occupation. However, there was no time for home life, domesticated architecture, and adornment until the Normans had overcome the whole region. Because of this, castles were cruder buildings than monasteries: Monasteries were usually immense stone buildings set in the biggest and most fecund valleys, while castles were erected on windy crests where their citizens devoted time and space to projects for offense and defense. Peaceful activities such as gardening were out of place in these destitute citadels. The best specimen of the early Anglo-Norman style of architecture existent in modern times is Berkeley Castle. It is said that the keep was created during William the Conqueror's time. A large terrace intended for exercising and as a means to stop attackers from mining below the walls runs around the building. One of these terraces, a charming bowling green, is covered grass and flanked by an old yew hedge trimmed into the shape of crude battlements.