Early Water Supply Techniques in Rome

Rome’s 1st raised aqueduct, Aqua Anio Vetus, was built in 273 BC; before that, citizens residing at higher elevations had to rely on natural creeks for their water. Outside of these aqueducts and springs, wells and rainwater-collecting cisterns were the only techniques obtainable at the time to supply water to segments of greater elevation. Beginning in the sixteenth century, a brand new program was introduced, using Acqua Vergine’s subterranean segments to provide water to Pincian Hill. The aqueduct’s channel was made attainable by pozzi, or manholes, that were placed along its length when it was initially created. The manholes made it easier to clean the channel, but it was also possible to use buckets to extract water from the aqueduct, as we witnessed with Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi when he bought the property from 1543 to 1552, the year he died. Reportedly, the rainwater cistern on his property wasn’t good enough to satisfy his needs. That is when he made the decision to create an access point to the aqueduct that ran directly below his residential property.

The Results of the Norman Invasion on Anglo-Saxon Gardens

The arrival of the Normans in the latter half of the eleventh century substantially altered The Anglo-Saxon ways of living. At the time of the conquest, the Normans surpassed the Anglo-Saxons in building design and cultivation. Still, home life, household architecture, and decoration were out of the question until the Normans taken over the rest of the populace. Most often constructed upon windy summits, castles were fundamental structures that enabled their inhabitants to spend time and space to offensive and defensive programs, while monasteries were rambling stone buildings commonly added in only the most fecund, extensive valleys. Gardening, a peaceful occupation, was impracticable in these unproductive fortifications. Berkeley Castle is possibly the most complete model in existence today of the early Anglo-Norman form of architecture. The keep is said to date from William the Conqueror's time period. As a strategy of deterring attackers from tunneling underneath the walls, an immense terrace surrounds the building. One of these terraces, a charming bowling green, is covered grass and flanked by an aged yew hedge trimmed into the shape of crude battlements.