The Impact of the Norman Conquest on Anglo Saxon Gardens

Anglo-Saxons experienced great modifications to their day-to-day lives in the latter half of the eleventh century due to the accession of the Normans. At the time of the conquest, the Normans surpassed the Anglo-Saxons in building design and cultivation.Impact Norman Conquest Anglo Saxon Gardens 057862912369871468.jpg But the Normans had to pacify the whole territory before they could focus on home life, domestic architecture, and decoration. Monasteries and castles served different purposes, so while monasteries were massive stone structures assembled in only the most fruitful, wide dales, castles were set upon blustery knolls where the residents focused on understanding offensive and defensive strategies. Tranquil activities such as gardening were out of place in these destitute citadels. Berkeley Castle, perhaps the most uncorrupted model of the early Anglo-Norman style of architecture, still exists now. The keep is reported to have been developed during the time of William the Conqueror. A spacious terrace recommended for walking and as a means to stop attackers from mining under the walls runs around the building. A picturesque bowling green, covered in grass and bordered by battlements clipped out of an ancient yew hedge, creates one of the terraces.

The Minoan Society: Outdoor Fountains

On the Greek island of Crete, digs have unearthed channels of different kinds.Minoan Society: Outdoor Fountains 057862912369871468.jpg In combination with providing water, they distributed water that accumulated from deluges or waste material. Stone and terracotta were the elements of choice for these channels. Terracotta was used for channels and pipes, both rectangle-shaped and spherical. Amidst these were terracotta conduits that were U-shaped or a shortened, cone-like shape which have exclusively appeared in Minoan culture. Knossos Palace had an advanced plumbing system made of terracotta conduits which ran up to three meters below ground. These Minoan conduits were additionally made use of for gathering and storing water, not just distribution. Therefore, these pipes had to be ready to: Subterranean Water Transportation: It is not really known why the Minoans wanted to transport water without it being seen. Quality Water Transportation: Many historians feel that these water lines were chosen to generate a different distribution process for the residence.

Bernini's Water Fountains

Bernini's Water Fountains 2479072229404673.jpg There are many renowned fountains in the city center of Rome. Almost all of them were designed, designed and constructed by one of the greatest sculptors and artists of the 17th century, Gian Lorenzo Bernini. His expertise as a fountain designer and also as a city architect, are observable all through the streets of Rome. Bernini's father, a renowned Florentine sculptor, mentored his young son, and they ultimately moved to Rome, in order to fully express their art, primarily in the form of public water fountains and water features. The young Bernini received compliments from Popes and relevant artists alike, and was an excellent worker. His sculpture was initially his claim to glory. Most famously in the Vatican, he utilized a base of expertise in classic Greek architecture and melded it effortlessly with Roman marble. He was influenced by many a great artists, however, Michelangelo had the biggest effect on his work.

Water Transport Solutions in Early Rome

Rome’s very first elevated aqueduct, Aqua Anio Vetus, was built in 273 BC; prior to that, residents residing at higher elevations had to depend on local springs for their water.Water Transport Solutions Early Rome 75800617194.jpg Throughout this time period, there were only two other systems capable of supplying water to high areas, subterranean wells and cisterns, which amassed rainwater. To supply water to Pincian Hill in the early 16th century, they implemented the new strategy of redirecting the motion from the Acqua Vergine aqueduct’s underground channel. As originally constructed, the aqueduct was provided along the length of its channel with pozzi (manholes) constructed at regular intervals. The manholes made it less demanding to maintain the channel, but it was also possible to use buckets to remove water from the aqueduct, as we saw with Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi when he bought the property from 1543 to 1552, the year he died. The cistern he had constructed to collect rainwater wasn’t adequate to meet his water demands. Thankfully, the aqueduct sat just below his property, and he had a shaft established to give him accessibility.